Homeopathy modifies immune response to Vibrio in fish
Immune and Antioxidant Enzyme Response of Longfin Yellowtail (Seriola rivoliana) Juveniles to Ultra-diluted Substances Derived from Phosphorus, Silica and Pathogenic Vibrio
Background This research aimed to observe the effect of homeopathic treatments prepared from Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus (H1) and commercial homeopathic medication Phosphoricum acidum and Silicea terra (H2) on the immune and antioxidant response in Seriola rivoliana juveniles under usual culture conditions and challenged with V. parahaemolyticus.
Methods Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to study changes in the expression of key genes related to immune response, cytokines (interleukin-1β [IL-1β]), adapter protein for cytokine release (MyD88) and piscidin and spectrophotometric techniques to analyze the activity of antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes in Seriola rivolianajuveniles at 30 (weaning stage [WS]) and 60 (early juveniles [EJ]) days post-hatching.
Results The H1 treatment led to over-expression of the IL-1β and MyD88 genes in fish at WS and EJ with respect to control, contrary to the H2 treatment that led to under-expression of the IL-1β, MyD88 and piscidin genes at the EJ stage. In fish challenged with V. parahaemolyticus, both H1 and H2 led to over-expression of IL-1β and MyD88; H2 caused an over-expression of piscidin. The SOD activity was higher in H1 with respect to H2 and the control group. CAT remained relatively stable with both H1 and H2 treatments.
Conclusions The results suggest that the overall effect of H1 was due to the presence of unknown antigens in low concentrations, while the response to H2—specifically during challenge—may have been due to a stimulating effect of nano-structures, prevailing from mother tincture after sequential dilution/succussion, in a pathway similar to that attributed to nano-vaccines.